Reimagining Physics and Cosmology: Challenging Established Models

Recent developments in the field of cosmology have sparked a debate that challenges the currently accepted Standard Model of Cosmology (SMC). Major cracks have appeared in the standard model of cosmology. Two notable papers (Ref.1 and Ref.2) have presented compelling arguments, with one suggesting a closed universe and the other strongly opposing an open, flat, and infinite universe. These findings have exposed significant cracks in the SMC, leading to growing concerns about the current state of cosmology.

The SMC is built upon two fundamental pillars of physics: General Relativity (GR) and Quantum Mechanics (QM). However, the inherent inconsistency between these two pillars has created a longstanding conflict within the field of physics (Ref.3B). Many physicists themselves acknowledge the crisis in physics (Ref.3C).

Mr. Subhajit Waugh, a physicist at RRCAT, has put forth a bold claim that the incompatibility between Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity may stem from an erroneous model of the universe (Ref.4A). He has proposed a different framework that defines the shape and size of the universe (Ref.4B). Interested scientists and experts can refer to his work (Ref.5, 6, 7).

According to Mr. Waugh, the universe can be conceptualised as an expanding (hyper) balloon, which, when applied to physics and cosmology, leads to a unified understanding. This model offers a potential path toward the elusive “theory of everything.”

The inspiration for this concept draws from Edwin Hubble’s observation that galaxies recede from Earth at speeds proportional to their distance, mirroring the behavior of an expanding balloon. Mr. Waugh argues that this analogy was correct and should not have been abandoned. In his model, the universe’s “wall” consists of invisible scalar fields and particles, similar to electric and magnetic fields, with particles representing excitations in these fields, akin to Quantum Field Theory. Everything, including stars, planets, and humans, is trapped within this 3D hypersurface of fields.

Mr. Waugh points out that the FLRW metric, the foundation of the SMC, actually portrays this universe’s structure. The temporal component of both the FLRW metric and Minkowski metric resembles movement along the radius of the universe, akin to the passage of time for observers. Simultaneously, the expansion of the universe’s wall, analogous to a balloon’s inflation, gives rise to Hubble’s law.

Mr. Waugh’s model yields a Hubble constant value that aligns well with accepted measurements, supporting its validity.

He also challenges the concept of a four-dimensional ‘SpaceTime continuum’ (Ref.8), arguing that it leads to a problematic “block universe” view, in which past, present, and future coexist simultaneously. This contradicts our everyday experiences and numerous scientific observations.

The root of this issue lies in an incomplete understanding of imaginary numbers (Ref.9), specifically within the Minkowski-Einstein SpaceTime equation.

Mr. Waugh contends that rectifying these mathematical assumptions can trigger a paradigm shift in science, with testable predictions poised to challenge established theories (Ref.11). He anticipates that forthcoming data from the Euclid telescope (Ref.12) will support his claim that the universe is positively curved, closed, and finite.

Intriguingly, Mr. Waugh’s ‘expanding (hyper) balloon’ model presents both General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics as natural consequences, potentially superseding these theories and replacing the Standard Model of Cosmology.

While these ideas are provocative and unconventional, they underscore the ever-evolving nature of scientific inquiry and the pursuit of a deeper understanding of the cosmos.



1) Planck evidence for a closed Universe and a possible crisis for cosmology


2) Curvature tension: Evidence for a closed universe


3A) A candid assessment of standard cosmology


3B) Relativity versus quantum mechanics: the battle for the universe


3C) World’s largest physics conference in Las Vegas will be grand; but will it be worthwhile?


4A) RRCAT Physicist Proposes New Theory Unifying General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics


4B) We are wrong about the shape and size of our universe: RRCAT Physicist provides a new model of universe.


5) Shape and size of our universe: challenging the Standard Model of Cosmology


6) Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity are compatible, and have a common origin: the expanding (hyper) balloon universe


7) Is everything we know about the shape and size of our universe, and how it works, wrong?


8) The biggest mistake in Science: Space and Time do not fuse into SpaceTime continuum.


9) RRCAT Physicist Claims Correct Representation of Imaginary Numbers May Unify General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics


10) Science is standing on shaky mathematical pillars, which guarantees a scientific revolution


11) Scientist Mr. Subhajit Waugh Makes Testable and Falsifiable Predictions that Could Shake up Science to the Core


12) Euclid telescope will revolutionize science, overthrow ruling scientific theories, and usher paradigm shift in science.

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